Stapes surgery (also called stapedotomy or stapedectomy) is performed to correct hearing loss resulting from bony overgrowth in the middle ear (otosclerosis). There are three connected bones in the middle ear that conduct sound vibrations.
When the innermost bone, the stapes, is affected by otosclerosis, it loses its conducting ability and the patient loses hearing. Stapes surgery replaces part of the damaged stapes bone with a prosthesis.
A stapedectomy is performed to improve the movement of sound to the inner ear. It is done to treat progressive hearing loss caused by otosclerosis, a condition in which spongy bone hardens around the base of the stapes. This condition fixes the stapes to the opening of the inner ear, so that the stapes no longer vibrates properly. Otosclerosis can also affect the malleus, the incus, and the bone that surrounds the inner ear. As a result, the transmission of sound to the inner ear is disrupted. Untreated otosclerosis eventually results in total deafness, usually in both ears.